A unidirectional bearing is a kind of bearing that can rotate freely in one direction and lock in the other direction. The metal shell of a one-way bearing contains a lot of rollers, needles or balls, and the shape of its rolling seat (cavity) makes it only roll in one direction, and a unidirectional bearing will produce a lot of resistance in the other direction.
Here is some knowledge of the unidirectional bearing.
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This wedge-type one-way overrunning hydraulic clutch bearing is generally composed of an inner ring, an outer ring, a wedge group, a wedge cage, a powerful spring, and a bearing. The wedges transfer force from one raceway to the other raceway by wedging between the inner and outer rings. The wedge has two diagonal diameters, one of which is larger than the other. The wedge action occurs when the inner and outer rings rotate relative to each other, forcing the wedge to have a larger vertical position on a larger cross-section.
The wedge function mainly depends on the wedging and self-locking angle of the wedges between the inner and outer rings. The basic concept of the clutch one-way requires that the friction coefficient of the wedge is related to the sudden torque generated by the inner ring in the driving direction. This friction value must be greater than the tangent value of the self-locking angle. If the conditions are not safe, wedging will not happen.
The self-locking angle is determined by the structure of the wedge, and the points on the inner and outer rings are connected with the wedge respectively.
The design of the wedge has a very low initial self-locking angle to ensure an absolute bond at the beginning. As the torque increases, a radial force will be generated on the wedge that can deflect the wedge raceway, causing the wedge to roll to a new position. The wedge is often designed to have a self-locking angle that can be gradually increased, just as it goes from the overriding position to the maximum load-bearing position. A relatively large self-locking angle can reduce the radial force generated by the wedge, so as long as the elongation and the Brinell hardness limit are required to allow a larger torque to be transmitted.
The slope and roller-type unidirectional bearings are basically composed of an outer ring with a cylindrical inner diameter, an inner ring with a slope, and a set of rollers that bear the spring force and are always in close contact with the inner and outer rings. As long as the rotation of one of the raceways in the direction of its motion affects the other, this arrangement essentially ensures the instantaneity of the overrun speed and the immediate driving capability.
This type of one way clutches can be suitable for overtaking, indexing, and non-reverse use in various environments.
When used as an overrunning one-way clutch, the ramp-type roller one-way clutch will be installed in this way, that is, the outer ring is used as the overrunning member. This is very important for high-speed overtaking. In the application of the inner ring overtaking, the centrifugal force acting on the roller will cause the overtaking speed to be limited.
When used as a non-reverse one-way clutch, a ramp roller-type one-way clutch with only the inner ring rotating is suitable for relatively low speeds. If the required speed is higher than the recommended speed, it is recommended to use a wedge-type one-way clutch.
When used as an indexing one-way clutch, the outer ring is often seen as a swing element, and the inner ring is often seen as a slave element. Otherwise, the inertia of the roller and spring will cause errors, especially when indexing at high frequencies. The use of diluted lubricating oil and strong springs provides high-speed indexing accuracy and high quality.