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Principle and Function of One Way Clutch

1. The principles of one way clutches

(1) Separation state

After the engine is started, the flywheel drives the drive gear to rotate. Because the flywheel will drive the drive gear to rotate at a high speed and is much higher than the rotation speed of the armature, it can be considered that the flywheel is active and the armature shaft is passive, that is, the drive gear is active and the outer race is passive.

In this case, the tail of the drive gear will drive the rollers to overcome the spring force, causing the rollers to roll toward the wider side of the wedge-shaped chamber. As a result, sliding friction occurs between the rollers at the tail of the driving gear and the outer race, and only the driving gear rotates with the flywheel, and the power of the engine cannot be transmitted to the armature shaft, which plays the role of automatic separation. At this time, the armature shaft is only idling at its speed, avoiding the danger of overspeeding.

(2) Combined state

When the starter drives the crankshaft of the engine, the armature shaft is active and the flywheel is passive. The armature shaft first drives the outer race of the one-way roller to rotate clockwise through the transmission conduit, while the driving gear meshing with the flywheel is in a static state.

Pushed by the friction force and the spring, the roller is on the narrower side of the wedge-shaped chamber so that the outer race and the tail of the drive gear are clamped and integrated. Then the drive gears are combined into one, so the drive gears rotate together and drive the flywheel to rotate so that the engine starts to work.

(3) Beyond performance

The one way starter clutch bearing simplifies the device of the transmission part, which is beneficial to reduce the cost. Two-stage speed change can be realized in the same direction by using one motor to input forward and reverse speed.

2. The roles of one way clutches

(1) Overrunning clutch

When the power output part (inner ring or outer ring) of the one way clutches rotates faster than the power source (outer ring or inner ring), the clutch is in a disengaged state, and there is no linkage between the inner and outer rings. This is called the one-way overrunning function of the one-way clutch.

(2) Positioning clutch

Convert linear reciprocating motion into circular stepping motion of a rotary axis. This is called the indexing function of the one-way clutch.

(3) Backstop clutch

Use one way clutches for material conveying equipment (such as belt conveyors, bucket elevators) to prevent the equipment from backing up or reversing when there is no power source. This is called the one-way backstop function of the one-way clutch.

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wu tang road, Canadian industrial zone, Cixi, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China.